(1994). "2nd International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition. Symposium proceedings. Arlington, Virginia, June 28-July 1, 1992." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1099S-1262S.
(1994). "[Vegetarian or similar diet in nurseries and educational institutions. Professional College of Public Health and Epidemiology]." Orv Hetil 135(7): 365-366.
Agte, V., et al. (1994). "Apparent absorption of copper and zinc from composite vegetarian diets in young Indian men." Ann Nutr Metab 38(1): 13-19.
In order to identify the factors affecting apparent absorption of copper and zinc in vegetarian subjects, percent absorption of copper and zinc was estimated during 6 metabolic experiments, each of 2 weeks duration, carried out on 6 healthy young men. They were observed at 3 levels of energy, i.e. 9.2, 10.5 and 12.1 MJ/day. Intakes of zinc were in the range of 20.6-27.1 mg/day and the observed values of apparent absorption (intake-fecal output) were 11.2-20.3%. In case of copper, intakes were 2.7-5.2 mg/day while the apparent absorption was to the tune of 10.6-21.7%. These values of absorption were lower than those of the non-vegetarian diets. Multiple regression analysis of 17 dietary factors suggested that hemicellulose, milk protein, niacin and cereal protein act as significant enhancers in zinc absorption while thiamine, phytate, oxalates, ascorbic acid and phosphorus acted as inhibitors. Copper absorption was enhanced by the dietary levels of riboflavine, cellulose, milk proteins, oxalates and zinc, while phosphorus, niacin, calcium and pulse protein inhibited the absorption of copper.
Barr, S. I., et al. (1994). "Vegetarian vs nonvegetarian diets, dietary restraint, and subclinical ovulatory disturbances: prospective 6-mo study." Am J Clin Nutr 60(6): 887-894.
Ovulatory function was prospectively assessed over 6 mo in 23 vegetarians and 22 nonvegetarians with clinically normal menstrual cycles. Subjects were 20-40 y of age, of stable weight (body mass index, in kg/m2, of 18-25), on current diets for > or = 2 y, and not using oral contraceptives. Quantitative analysis of basal body temperature records classified cycles as normally ovulatory, short luteal phase (< 10 d), or anovulatory. Subjects completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (subjects completed the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (subscales for restraint, hunger, and disinhibition) and kept three 3-d food records. Vegetarians had lower BMIs (21.1 +/- 2.3 vs 22.7 +/- 1.9, P < 0.05), percentage body fat (24.0 +/- 5.5% vs 27.4 +/- 5.1%, P < 0.05), and restraint scores (6.4 +/- 4.4 vs 9.5 +/- 3.7, P < 0.05). Mean cycle lengths were similar, but vegetarians had longer luteal phase lengths (11.2 +/- 2.6 vs 9.1 +/- 3.8 d, P < 0.05). Cycle types also differed (chi 2 = 9.64, P < 0.01): vegetarians had fewer anovulatory cycles (4.6% vs 15.1% of cycles). Compared with those with restraint scores below the median, highly restrained women had fewer ovulatory cycles (3.6 +/- 2.3 vs 5.0 +/- 1.4, P < 0.05) and shorter mean luteal phase lengths (7.4 +/- 4.1 vs 10.7 +/- 3.1 d, P < 0.05). We conclude that ovulatory disturbances and restrained eating are less common among vegetarians, and that restraint influences ovulatory function.
Beilin, L. J. (1994). "Vegetarian and other complex diets, fats, fiber, and hypertension." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1130S-1135S.
Although much of the attention on diet and hypertension has centered around the rule of specific nutrients such as sodium, potassium, and alcohol, it has become evident that certain complex dietary patterns have a blood pressure-lowering effect and may help protect against the development of hypertension. It remains to be seen whether these effects on blood pressure require complex but specific combinations of nutrients or, alternatively, are due to hitherto unrecognized single nutrients with antihypertensive properties. The issues are difficult to resolve because people eat foods, not single nutrients, and there is a high degree of association between different nutrients in foods and patterns of food intake, as well as potentially confounding effects of other factors associated with eating habits such as age, body fat distribution, physical activity, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and psychosocial stress.
Devulapalli, C. S. (1994). "[Vegetarian food is healthy!]." Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 114(26): 3120.
Dwyer, J. T. (1994). "Vegetarian eating patterns: science, values, and food choices--where do we go from here?" Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1255S-1262S.
Many aspects of vegetarian diets are currently of interest from a health standpoint. It is becoming increasingly important to recognize that both values and scientific issues come into play in evaluating data on diet and nutrition.
Eisinger, M., et al. (1994). "Nutrient intake of endurance runners with ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet and regular western diet." Z Ernahrungswiss 33(3): 217-229.
During an endurance run (1,000 km in 20 days) it was investigated whether an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (OLVD) could cover the nutritional requirements of endurance athletes. A regular western diet (RWD) was used as reference. Both diets were offered with an energy content of 4,500 kcal per day and an energy percentage of carbohydrate:fat:protein of 60:30:10. The runners were divided into two dietary groups according to their usual dietary habits. The results of the 55 participants who completed the race show that runners from both groups had the same intake of energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein. Runners of the OLVD group consumed more dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as less cholesterol. With the exception of sodium chloride and cobalamin, the intake of the calculated minerals and vitamins was higher in the OLVD and exceeded the official recommendations. This study shows that an OLVD with a high nutrient density is adequate to cover the nutritional requirements of endurance-athletes. The intake and absorption of iron should be monitored closely in all diet groups.
Frentzel-Beyme, R. and J. Chang-Claude (1994). "Vegetarian diets and colon cancer: the German experience." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1143S-1152S.
The study assessed mortality and morbidity risks as related to nutritional status of moderate and strict vegetarians in Germany. The total cohort of 1904 self-identified persons was followed up for 11 y. Compared with national mortality rates for Federal Republic of Germany, the observed deaths for all causes were below expectation by a factor of 0.44 for men and 0.53 for women. The mortality for colon cancer was reduced [standardized mortality ration (SMR 44.1 for men and 77.9 for women]. No deaths were observed from rectal cancer. A vegetarian lifestyle of long duration (> or = 20 y) was associated with decreased overall and cancer mortality. Other determinants of decreased cause-specific mortality were physical activity, body weight, and strictness of adherence to the life-style. The relationship between a vegetarian and fiber-rich diet and a decreased risk for colon cancer has been reported in many studies. In this study, the influence of other factors such as health-conscious behavior and a healthy lifestyle seem to indicate partly stronger effects than nutrition itself. This may explain the generally better health of moderate vegetarians.
Gibson, R. S. (1994). "Content and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetarian diets." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1223S-1232S.
This review compares the content and major food sources of copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Interactions affecting trace element bioavailability and their impact on the trace element status of vegetarians are discussed. Adult vegetarian diets often have a lower zinc and selenium content but a higher copper and manganese content compared with omnivorous diets. Cereals are the primary sources of copper, manganese, and selenium in most diets and the major source of zinc in many vegetarian diets; flesh floods are the primary source of zinc and secondary source of selenium in omnivorous diets. Despite the apparent lower bioavailability of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in vegetarian diets because of the high contents of phytic acid and/or dietary fiber and the low content of flesh foods in the diet, the trace element status of most adult vegetarians appears to be adequate. Children, however, appear to be more vulnerable to suboptimal zinc status, presumably because of their high zinc requirements for growth and their bodies' failure to adapt to a vegetarian diet by increased absorption of dietary zinc.
Gussow, J. D. (1994). "Ecology and vegetarian considerations: does environmental responsibility demand the elimination of livestock?" Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1110S-1116S.
Although the recommendation to avoid animal flesh for environmental reasons has been increasingly advanced, especially in the highly industrialized countries, the ecological implications of such avoidance are seldom carefully examined. If sustainable food systems are to be modeled after natural systems that maintain fertility, both plants and animals would be involved. This paper examines the history of the idea that environmental responsibility is linked to vegetarianism and the destructive effects of present methods of animal raising on farmers, animal welfare, and the environment. Finally, it explores the question of whether vegetarianism is the appropriate response to these problems.
Haddad, E. H. (1994). "Development of a vegetarian food guide." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1248S-1254S.
In the past several years there has been an increase in the number of people who avoid some or all animal products for food. Dietary guides that include animal foods are not designed for vegetarian eating patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a food guide to be used by nutrition educators in assessing the adequacy of vegetarian diets in an educational or clinical setting and to be used to teach interested individuals how to plan an adequate vegetarian diet. The steps followed in developing the food guide are outlined. Nutrient analysis on constructed food groups are used to estimate types and quantities of food that must be included in the daily diet to achieve nutrient adequacy.
Haugen, M. A., et al. (1994). "Changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acids and their relationship to disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with a vegetarian diet." Br J Nutr 72(4): 555-566.
In a controlled clinical trial we have recently shown that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) improved after fasting for 7-10 d and that the improvement could be sustained through 3.5 months with a vegan diet and 9 months with a lactovegetarian diet. Other studies have indicated that the inflammatory process in RA can be reduced through manipulation of dietary fatty acids. A switch to a vegetarian diet significantly alters the intake of fatty acids. Therefore, we have analysed the changes in fatty acid profiles of the plasma phospholipid fraction and related these changes to disease activity. The concentrations of the fatty acids 20:3n-6 and 20:4n-6 were significantly reduced after 3.5 months with a vegan diet (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01 respectively), but the concentration increased to baseline values with a lactovegetarian diet. The concentration of 20:5n-3 was significantly reduced after the vegan diet (P < 0.0001) and the lactovegetarian diet periods (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in fatty acid concentrations between diet responders and diet non-responders after the vegan or lactovegetarian diet periods. Our results indicate that the changes in the fatty acid profiles cannot explain the clinical improvement.
Havala, S. (1994). "Vegetarian diets--clearing the air." West J Med 160(5): 483-484.
Herenda, D. and O. Jakel (1994). "Poultry abattoir survey of carcass condemnation for standard, vegetarian, and free range chickens." Can Vet J 35(5): 293-296.
During the period April 1991 to March 1992, data concerning the condemnation rate of standard, vegetarian, and free-range chickens were collected and summarized from one federally inspected abattoir in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to discuss the effects of diet, management, and breed of chickens on pathological lesions, ensuing condemnation rates, and consequent losses to the growers and the poultry industry. The data collected at this abattoir revealed that vegetarian chickens showed a higher condemnation rate (5.23%) for disease and nondisease conditions compared with standard (1.48%) and free-range (0.94%) chickens. Free-range chickens were approximately two weeks older than vegetarian and standard chickens at the time of slaughter. The most common causes of condemnation in vegetarian chickens was cellulitis (1.18%), followed by ascites (0.77%). Ascites and cellulitis (0.26% both) were also the most common causes of condemnation in standard chickens. Cyanosis (0.21%) and mutilation (0.17%) represented the highest rate of condemnation in free-range chickens. The low rate of pathological lesions in free-range chickens is a positive trend in poultry disease management.
Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., et al. (1994). "Vegetarian diet for patients with rheumatoid arthritis--status: two years after introduction of the diet." Clin Rheumatol 13(3): 475-482.
We have previously reported that a significant improvement can be obtained in rheumatoid arthritis patients by fasting followed by an individually adjusted vegetarian diet for one year. The patients who changed their diet could be divided into diet responders and diet nonresponders. After the clinical trial the patients were free to change diet or medication and after approximately one year they were asked to attend a new clinical examination. We compared the change from baseline (i.e. at the time of study entry) to the time of the follow-up examination for diet responders, diet nonresponders and controls who ate an omnivorous diet. The following variables favoured diet responders: pain score, duration of morning stiffness, Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire index, number of tender joints, Ritchie's articular index, number of swollen joints, ESR and platelet count [corrected]. The difference between the three groups were significant for all the clinical variables, except for grip strength. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to laboratory or anthropometric variables. At the time of the follow-up examination all diet responders but only half of the diet nonresponders still followed a diet. Our findings indicate that a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis benefit from dietary manipulations and that the improvement can be sustained through a two-year period.
Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., et al. (1994). "Vegetarian diet for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: can the clinical effects be explained by the psychological characteristics of the patients?" Br J Rheumatol 33(6): 569-575.
In a controlled, single blind clinical trial we have demonstrated recently a beneficial effect of fasting and vegetarian diet in RA. In the present study we compared 53 patients who participated in this clinical trial with 71 other RA patients with regard to some psychological parameters. The patients who participated in the clinical trial differed significantly from other RA patients. Firstly, they had a higher internal score and a lower chance score on the Multi-dimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLCS). Secondly, their belief in the effect of ordinary medical treatment, evaluated by a 10-cm visual analogue scale, was lower, and their belief in the effect of 'alternative', unconventional forms of treatment was higher. Of the patients who were randomized to a vegetarian diet, there was no significant difference between diet responders and diet non-responders with regard to the MHLCS scores. But, diet responders had a significantly lower belief in the effect of ordinary medical treatment compared with diet non-responders. The psychological distress imposed on the patients by changing from an omnivorous diet to a vegetarian diet was monitored during the clinical trial by means of the General Health Questionnaire. Throughout the clinical trial, this variable favoured the vegetarians compared with the omnivorous and the diet responders vs the diet non-responders. We conclude, firstly, that patients with certain psychological characteristics were selected to the clinical trial; secondly, that the MHLCS scores could not explain the clinical improvement, but it may have been influenced by the patients' beliefs in ordinary and 'alternative' forms of treatment; and thirdly, that dietary treatment decreased psychological distress.
Melby, C. L., et al. (1994). "Blood pressure and blood lipids among vegetarian, semivegetarian, and nonvegetarian African Americans." Am J Clin Nutr 59(1): 103-109.
Blood pressure (BP) and serum lipids were compared among three dietary groups of Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) African-American adults: vegetarians (VEGs: no consumption of animal flesh, n = 66), semivegetarians (SEMIVEGs: one to three servings of animal flesh per week, n = 56), and nonvegetarians (NONVEGs: daily consumption of animal flesh, n = 45). VEGs had a lower mean waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and lower dietary intakes of protein, saturated fat, and cholesterol compared with the NONVEGs. Only 16% of the VEGs were confirmed to be hypertensive compared with 35.7% of the SEMIVEGs and 31.1% of the NONVEGs. Independent of differences in WHR, the VEGs had significantly lower concentrations of serum total cholesterol (STC), LDL-C, triglycerides, STC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C than the NONVEGs. The SEMIVEGs had lipid values intermediate to the VEG and NONVEG groups. Among African-American SDAs, a vegetarian diet is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk factors than is an omnivorous diet.
Norum, K. R. (1994). "[Balanced vegetarian diet is healthy]." Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 114(22): 2588.
Peltonen, R., et al. (1994). "Changes of faecal flora in rheumatoid arthritis during fasting and one-year vegetarian diet." Br J Rheumatol 33(7): 638-643.
The beneficial effect of a 1-yr vegetarian diet in RA has recently been demonstrated in a clinical trial. We have analysed stool samples of the 53 RA patients by using direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography of bacterial cellular fatty acids. Based on repeated clinical assessments disease improvement indices were constructed for the patients. At each time point during the intervention period the patients in the diet group were then assigned either to a group with a high improvement index (HI) or a group with a low improvement index (LI). Significant alteration in the intestinal flora was observed when the patients changed from omnivorous to vegan diet. There was also a significant difference between the periods with vegan and lactovegetarian diets. The faecal flora from patients with HI and LI differed significantly from each other at 1 and 13 months during the diet. This finding of an association between intestinal flora and disease activity may have implications for our understanding of how diet can affect RA.
Reddy, S., et al. (1994). "The influence of maternal vegetarian diet on essential fatty acid status of the newborn." Eur J Clin Nutr 48(5): 358-368.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a maternal vegetarian diet influences the essential fatty acid status of the newborn and whether this is related to outcome of pregnancy. DESIGN: Dietary intake and the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids were determined in 24 South Asian vegetarian and 24 white omnivore non-pregnant premenopausal women randomly selected from the general population of North London. Umbilical cords and cord blood were collected at delivery from 48 South Asian vegetarian women and 98 white omnivores from the same catchment area along with details of antenatal history and the outcome of pregnancy. The fatty acid composition of the cord arteries and that of cord plasma phospholipids were analysed in a subset of 32 pairs of subjects, who were matched for maternal age, gestational age, parity and sex of infant. RESULTS: Intakes of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) expressed as proportion of the dietary energy and the ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were higher in the vegetarian women, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) were absent from their diets. The proportion of linoleic acid, as well as the absolute concentration, was greater and those of EPA and DHA were lower in plasma phospholipids, plasma free fatty acid and total plasma lipids of the vegetarians compared with the white subjects. The proportion of DHA was lower (P > 0.001) but that of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) was greater (P < 0.001) in cord those from the omnivores. The ratio of 20:3n-9/20:4n-6 was elevated in cord artery but not in cord plasma phospholipids in both groups. Early onset of labour and the duration of gestation was 5.6 days shorter. Birth weight, head circumference and length were lower in the infants born to South Asian vegetarians even after adjusting for maternal height, duration of gestation, parity, gender of infants and smoking habits. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any relationship between the proportions of DHA in plasma or cord artery phospholipids and the birthweight or head circumference of the infants. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that vegetarians give birth to infants with less DHA in their plasma and cord artery phospholipids but this did not appear to be independently related to the outcome of pregnancy.
Reddy, S., et al. (1994). "The influence of maternal vegetarian diet on essential fatty acid status of the newborn." World Rev Nutr Diet 75: 102-104.
Sanders, T. (1994). "Good nutrition for the vegetarian mother." Mod Midwife 4(4): 23-26.
A pregnant or nursing vegetarian mother needs to be aware of the need to vary her diet because the nutrients that she would otherwise get from meat or fish are more widely scattered in foods of plant origin. Diets which exclude dairy products require more careful planning. Particular attention needs to be made to the mother's intake of iron, calcium, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. Vegetarian mothers do not show a higher incidence of complications of pregnancy, but there are some links between vegetarians and lower birthweight and earlier labour. On weaning the infant's diet should not be too bulky and should provide adequate vitamin D and B12.
Sanders, T. A. and S. Reddy (1994). "Vegetarian diets and children." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1176S-1181S.
The diets and growth of children reared on vegetarian diets are reviewed. Excessive bulk combined with low energy density can be a problem for children aged < or = 5 y and can lead to imparied growth. Diets that have a high content of phytate and other modifiers of mineral absorption are associated with an increased prevalence of rickets and iron-deficiency anemia. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a real hazard in unsupplemented or unfortified vegan and vegetarian diets. It is suggested that vegans and vegetarians should use oils with a low ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid in view of the recently recognized role of docosahexaenoic acid in visual functioning. If known pitfalls are avoided, the growth and development of children reared on both vegan and vegetarian diets appears normal.
Schnuth, M. L. (1994). "You and your vegetarian patients." RDH 14(4): 12-14, 16, 18 passim.
Specker, B. L. (1994). "Nutritional concerns of lactating women consuming vegetarian diets." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1182S-1186S.
Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of the mother, infant, or both. Vitamin D and calcium status in vegetarian women may be low, resulting in maternal bone demineralization. Vitamin B-12 deficiency resulting in neurologic damage has been reported in infants of vegetarian women. A review of several studies completed on women in the northeastern United States who were consuming a macrobiotic diet is presented. Supplemental vitamin D does not appear to be necessary given sufficient sun exposure. Calcium intake in vegetarian mothers was low and differences in calcium-regulating hormones were apparent. However, it is not clear whether these hormonal changes resulted in adequate adaptation whether these hormonal changes resulted in adequate adaptation and prevented bone demineralization. The low calcium intake in the vegetarian women did not result in lower milk calcium concentrations. Elevated methylmalonic acid excretion, which is often seen in vitamin B-12 deficiency, was noted in the vegetarian mothers and their infants. Infants with high methylmalonic acid excretion were consuming milk low in vitamin B-12.
Weaver, C. M. and K. L. Plawecki (1994). "Dietary calcium: adequacy of a vegetarian diet." Am J Clin Nutr 59(5 Suppl): 1238S-1241S.
Obtaining sufficient amounts of absorbable dietary calcium to optimize bone density and to protect against bone resorption is a protective measure to lower the risk of osteoporosis. This goal is difficult in Western-style diets without the inclusion of dairy foods, fortified foods, or supplements. Lactovegetarians are able to meet recommended calcium intakes and do not have compromised bone mineral densities. Few other foods provide concentrated sources of absorbable calcium. Estimates of the absorbable calcium content of several plant foods are provided.
Worm, N. (1994). "[Better health with a vegetarian diet?]." Med Monatsschr Pharm 17(12): 367-372.
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