Barbosa, J. C., et al. (1990). "The relationship among adiposity, diet, and hormone concentrations in vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women." Am J Clin Nutr 51(5): 798-803.
The relationships among anthropometric variables, dietary nutrients, and plasma steroid, polypeptide, and binding-protein hormone concentrations were investigated in 24 Seventh-day Adventist postmenopausal women, 12 vegetarian (SV) and 12 nonvegetarian (SNV). Fasting blood and 7-d dietary intake information were collected. SVs consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber and fewer saturated fatty acids than did SNVs. The thigh and sum of three skinfold-thickness measurements were significantly greater for SNVs than for SVs. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17 beta were significantly lower in SVs than in SNVs. Significant relationships were observed for the combined groups (SV and SNV) between estradiol-17 beta and triceps and suprailiac skinfold thickness and body fat. Plasma concentrations of estradiol-17 beta of the combined groups revealed a significant negative relationship between their crude and dietary fiber intakes. Further study delineating the effects of adiposity and dietary nutrients on basal concentrations of sex hormones is warranted.
Barkeling, B., et al. (1990). "Effects of a high-protein meal (meat) and a high-carbohydrate meal (vegetarian) on satiety measured by automated computerized monitoring of subsequent food intake, motivation to eat and food preferences." Int J Obes 14(9): 743-751.
We have examined the effects on satiety of equicaloric meals with different protein and carbohydrate content. Twenty normal weight healthy women were served cooked lunch meals made of commonly used natural food items with either a high-protein (43 energy %) (a meat casserole) or a high-carbohydrate (69 energy %) (a vegetarian casserole) content in a counterbalanced repeated measures design. The subsequent ad libitum evening meal intake (4 h after lunch) was measured by a 'universal eating monitor' and subjective feelings of motivation to eat and food preferences were assessed repeatedly. At the subsequent evening meal subjects ate 12 per cent less (P less than 0.05) after the high-protein meal compared to the high-carbohydrate meal. There was no difference in motivation to eat between meals. This could partly be explained by a difference in palatability between the meals. The food-preference lists showed that before lunch there was relative preference for high-protein foods in favour of high-carbohydrate foods. After lunch either meal produced instead a relative 'aversion' for high-protein foods. This 'aversion' was greater after the high-protein lunch meal than after the high-carbohydrate lunch meal.
Brants, H. A., et al. (1990). "Adequacy of a vegetarian diet at old age (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)." J Am Coll Nutr 9(4): 292-302.
To assess the adequacy of a vegetarian diet at old age, the dietary intake (assessed through dietary history with cross-check) of 44 apparently healthy lacto-(ovo-)vegetarians, aged 65-97 years, was evaluated. Adequacy was assessed by a comparison of nutrient intake with (Dutch) recommendations and by evaluating data on nutritional status. The results were also compared with data of elderly omnivores. In contrast to elderly omnivores, percentages of energy from protein (13%), fat (37%), and carbohydrates (50%) as well as P/S ratio (0.63) were close to or within the range of Dutch guidelines regarding a healthy diet (percentages of energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates 10-15, 30-35, and 55%, respectively: P/S ratio 0.5-1.0). For most of the micronutrients studied intake was adequate, and nutrient density of the vegetarian diet was higher than of the omnivorous diet. However, the supply of zinc (average daily intake 8.5 and 7.6 mg for men and women, respectively), iron (because of lower bioavailability of nonheme iron), vitamin B12 (women only: intake 2.3 micrograms/day), and water (daily intake less than 1600 ml for 30% of the vegetarians) need special attention, considering the relatively high prevalence of a marginal status of these nutrients. In conclusion, a lacto-(ovo-)vegetarian diet can be adequate at old age, provided that it is carefully planned, especially with respect to the supply of iron, zinc, and vitamin B12.
Holmqvist, O. (1990). "[What role does the metabolic effect have after changing to a lacto-vegetarian diet?]." Lakartidningen 87(9): 620.
Lowik, M. R., et al. (1990). "Long-term effects of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional status of elderly people (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)." J Am Coll Nutr 9(6): 600-609.
The health and nutritional status (anthropometry, and blood and urine biochemistry) of 44 Dutch apparently healthy vegetarians, aged 65-97 years, refraining from meat, fish, and poultry consumption, was assessed for insight into long-term consequences of ovo-lacto- or lacto-vegetarianism. The results indicate that in comparison to omnivorous elderly the vegetarian elderly (especially men) have aged successfully with respect to cardiovascular risk factors. In contrast, vegetarian elderly are at a higher risk for a marginal iron, zinc, and vitamin B12 status. Although several vegetarian elderly showed low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in plasma and many had low values of 24-hr urine volume (per kg body weight), these values are not likely the result of a vegetarian diet per se. It is concluded that, although some nutrition-related risks are prevalent among vegetarian elderly, these risks can probably be prevented by lifestyle changes.
Lowik, M. R., et al. (1990). "Effect of dietary fiber on the vitamin B6 status among vegetarian and nonvegetarian elderly (Dutch nutrition surveillance system)." J Am Coll Nutr 9(3): 241-249.
To obtain more insight into the effect of dietary fiber on vitamin B6 status among elderly people, we studied dietary interrelationships as well as associations between dietary intake and plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and cofactor stimulation of aspartate aminotransferase in erythrocytes (EAST-AC) among 441 nonvegetarian (aged 65-79) and 32 vegetarian elderly (aged 65-94). EAST-AC was found to be inversely related with intake of vitamin B6 and dietary fiber in bivariate regression analyses. After adjustment for age, intake of energy, protein, and fiber, the intake of vitamin B6 was still inversely related with EAST-AC. The association between EAST-AC and dietary fiber disappeared in the multivariate analysis, whereas total protein intake proved to be positively related with EAST-AC in the multivariate analysis only. The differences between bi- and multivariate analyses are most likely due to the observed interrelationships between intake of vitamin B6, fiber, and protein. It is concluded that dietary fiber does not have a significant impact on the vitamin B6 status among Dutch elderly people, since only protein (positively) and vitamin B6 (inversely) intake appeared to be related with EAST-AC in the multivariate analysis.
Martin-Du Pan, R. C., et al. (1990). "[Hypercarotenemia, amenorrhea and a vegetarian diet]." J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 19(3): 290-294.
In order to analyse the role of hypercarotenemia in amenorrhoea, we have studied the ovarian function of 20 patients presenting with hypercarotenemia (serum carotene greater than 5 mumol/l). 12 of these were complaining of secondary amenorrhoea (group I), 7 with a normal weight (group I A) and 5 with a weight below 85% of ideal weight (group I B). Another group of 8 patients had normal menstrual cycles and a body weight within normal limits (group II). Group I presented an ovarian insufficiency of hypothalamic origin with an increase in the FSH/LH ratio. The patients in group I A although of normal weight differed from group II by a history of important weight variations, strenuous sports activity and an essentially vegetarian diet, the most likely reason for their hypercarotenemia. The high carotene levels however do not seem to be directly responsible for the amenorrhoea, in view of the normal menstrual cycles of the patients in group II. Hypercarotenemia can be considered as a biologic marker of weight loss with fat mobilisation and low T3 levels. It can also be due to a vegetarian diet. The latter may be an aetiological factor in anovulation by increasing faecal excretion of oestrogens and thus decreasing blood levels of oestradiol particularly when associated with other compounding factors such as excessive physical activity, loss of weight or affective problems.
Phinney, S. D., et al. (1990). "Reduced arachidonate in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters associated with vegetarian diets in humans." Am J Clin Nutr 51(3): 385-392.
Lipid fractions such as phospholipids (PLs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) represent source pools for eicosanoid synthesis. To determine whether dietary habits affect the enrichment of 20:4n-6 in these precursor pools, we studied humans with partial or complete arachidonate restriction resulting from chronic avoidance of animal fat and tissue. Fasting serum was obtained from omnivorous control subjects (Omni, n = 100), semivegetarians (Semiveg, n = 16), and vegetarians (Veg, n = 25). PLs, CEs, FFAs, and triglyceride (TG) fatty acids were quantitated by thin-layer and gas chromatography. Serum 20:4n-6 was lower in the PL fraction in both Veg (p less than 0.01) and Semiveg groups (p less than 0.05) than in the Omni group and lower in the CE fraction in the Veg group (p less than 0.05). Serum 18:2n-6 did not differ between groups for any serum lipid fraction. 18:3n-3 was elevated in PLs and CEs of both Veg (p less than 0.05 and 0.01) and Semiveg groups (p less than 0.05 and 0.01) compared with the Omni group but did not result in differences in 20:5n-3 in PLs or CEs between diet groups. The lower concentration of 20:4n-6 in serum PLs and CEs of the Veg group indicates that dietary arachidonic acid enriches its circulating pool in humans; however, 20:5n-3 is not similarly responsive to dietary restriction.
Rahmatulla, M. and E. E. Guile (1990). "Relationship between dental caries and vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets." Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 18(5): 277-278.
Rottka, H. (1990). "Health and vegetarian life-style." Bibl Nutr Dieta(45): 176-194.
Specker, B. L., et al. (1990). "Vitamin B-12: low milk concentrations are related to low serum concentrations in vegetarian women and to methylmalonic aciduria in their infants." Am J Clin Nutr 52(6): 1073-1076.
In a group of 13 strict vegetarian and 6 omnivorous lactating women, relationships were studied among maternal milk and serum vitamin B-12, and milk vitamin B-12 and infant urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. Milk vitamin B-12 concentrations were lower in women consuming a strict vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet. Milk vitamin B-12 was inversely related to length of time on a vegetarian diet and positively correlated with maternal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Infant urinary MMA excretion was inversely related to milk vitamin B-12 concentrations less than 362 pmol/L. The 1989 recommended dietary allowance for vitamin B-12 of 221 pmol/d for infants is close to the intake below which infant urinary MMA excretion is increased. We conclude that the current RDA for infants provides little margin of safety.
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