Bhattacharya, R. D., et al. (1985). "Copper and zinc level in biological samples from healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit in reference to community environment." Chronobiologia 12(2): 145-153.
Many epidemiologists have found a correlation between copper and zinc in the community environment and diseases, such as myocardial and vascular pathologies, and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the total daily intake of these two metals in cooked food, drinking water and air and their respective levels in blood and urine. A chronobiological methodology has been adopted to establish the reference values of these two metals in biological samples. It has been observed that the daily intake of copper is within the recommended value, whereas its urinary excretion is high. The daily intake of zinc is below the recommended value and its urinary excretion is also high. Both the metals showed a temporal oscillation pattern in blood and urine. A possible chronic zinc deficiency has been anticipated in this particular ethnic group of vegetarian food habit.
Bhattacharya, R. D., et al. (1985). "Reference values of urinary electrolyte excretion in respect of a vegetarian diet. A chronobiological study." Panminerva Med 27(2): 83-87.
Chanarin, I., et al. (1985). "Megaloblastic anaemia in a vegetarian Hindu community." Lancet 2(8465): 1168-1172.
138 Indian patients with megaloblastic haemopoiesis were studied. All were lifelong vegetarians. The diagnosis was nutritional cobalamin deficiency in 95 and pernicious anaemia in 20; only 4 patients had folate deficiency. A third had intestinal malabsorption, 20 had features of osteomalacia, and 87 were iron deficient. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 17. Cobalamin deficiency may have contributed to these complications via intestinal malabsorption and impaired bacterial killing of phagocytosed bacilli by cobalamin-deficient macrophages. The frequency of pernicious anaemia was the same in Indian subjects as in Caucasians.
Finley, D. A., et al. (1985). "Inorganic constituents of breast milk from vegetarian and nonvegetarian women: relationships with each other and with organic constituents." J Nutr 115(6): 772-781.
Changes in concentrations of minerals, trace elements, protein, lactose and total lipids during 20 mo of lactation and correlations between levels of these milk constituents were studied in a carefully defined set of 222 milk samples collected from 52 women, one-half of whom were vegetarians. Milk samples from vegetarians and those from nonvegetarians contained similar levels of iron, copper, zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, lactose and fat. Following a brief but sharp initial decrease, levels of protein and iron did not change significantly between mo 2 and 20 of lactation. Levels of zinc, copper, sodium and potassium declined for the first 6 mo of lactation. Levels of lipid, sodium and zinc increased during later months of lactation while that of calcium decreased. Levels of lactose, copper, potassium and magnesium remained unchanged during mo 7-20. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed positive correlations between levels of three pairs of inorganic constituents during the first 6 mo of lactation: copper and zinc, copper and potassium, and potassium and calcium. During the subsequent 14 mo of lactation, potassium was correlated with copper. The level of iron was positively correlated with that of lipid, while that of calcium was negatively correlated with that of lipid. These relationships, and others reported in the paper, are discussed in relation to current hypotheses of the mechanism of milk secretion and the binding of inorganic to organic milk constituents.
Hellebostad, M., et al. (1985). "Vitamin D deficiency rickets and vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarian children." Acta Paediatr Scand 74(2): 191-195.
During the years 1978-83 four vegetarian children have been admitted to the pediatric departments of Ullevaal and Aker Hospitals in Oslo and Haukeland Hospital, Bergen, with the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets. One had vitamin B12 deficiency as well. All had been fed a vegetarian diet with some cows' milk, but without vitamin supplementation. All had marked hypocalcemia, and three had tetany or convulsions. All responded well to conventional doses of vitamin D therapy. Two of the mothers had vitamin D deficiency, and one of them also had vitamin B12 deficiency. This report describes the case histories of these children, and also discusses predisposing factors of vegetarian diets for the development of nutritional rickets.
Howie, B. J. and T. D. Shultz (1985). "Dietary and hormonal interrelationships among vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists and nonvegetarian men." Am J Clin Nutr 42(1): 127-134.
The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17 beta, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels was investigated in 12 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) vegetarian (SV), 10 SDA nonvegetarian (SNV), and 8 non-SDA nonvegetarian (NV) men. Fasting blood samples and 3-day dietary intake information were obtained from each subject. The SV subjects consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber than the SNV and NV subjects, respectively. Plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta were significantly lower in the SV than in the omnivores. Additionally, the plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta of the combined groups (SV, SNV, and NV) revealed a significant negative relationship with their crude and dietary fiber intakes. These subjects hormonal milieu was related to specific dietary constituents, possibly leading to a decreased plasma concentration of androgen and estrogen in vegetarians. Implications include the possible modification of prostate cancer risk through dietary intervention.
Korpela, J. T. and H. Adlercreutz (1985). "Fecal neutral sterols in omnivorous and vegetarian women." Scand J Gastroenterol 20(10): 1180-1184.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a vegetarian diet on human fecal neutral sterol excretion. Free and esterified fecal neutral sterols were analyzed by capillary gas-chromatography in healthy North-American white women who were consuming either a mixed Western diet (n = 19) or a vegetarian diet (n = 20). Vegetarians had lower mean concentrations of bacterial metabolites of cholesterol, coprostanol, and coprostanone, and their relative amounts of esterified neutral sterol metabolism in both populations. Most of the subjects in both groups excreted their neutral sterols mainly as metabolites. However, 25% of the omnivores and 21% of the vegetarians had exceptionally low amounts of these metabolites in their feces. The vegetarians in this study differed only slightly from omnivores with regard to intestinal bacterial metabolism of neutral sterols.
Linkosalo, E., et al. (1985). "Effects of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on the free amino acid composition of wax-stimulated whole human saliva." J Nutr 115(5): 588-592.
The free amino acid composition of whole saliva was determined for nine lacto-ovo-vegetarians and their age- and sex-matched controls. Concentrations of glycine, serine, proline, glutamic acid plus glutamine and delta-aminovaleric acid were significantly higher in the lacto-ovo-vegetarians than in the controls. Elevated proline levels in saliva were associated with increased concentrations of delta-aminovaleric acid and glycine. The results are discussed in terms of increased protein breakdown and/or altered metabolism of salivary microorganisms due to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet.
Lithell, H., et al. (1985). "Changes in lipoprotein metabolism during a supplemented fast and an ensuing vegetarian diet period." Ups J Med Sci 90(1): 73-83.
The effect on lipoprotein metabolism of a 2-week modified fast and an immediately ensuing 3-week period on a vegetarian diet was studied under metabolic ward conditions in 21 non-obese female and 6 male patients. The very low calorie diet induced reductions of the cholesterol concentration in all serum lipoprotein classes. In the female patients, who were all normolipoproteinaemic, the triglycerides in serum showed a slight increase during the fast, reflecting small changes in very low (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein triglycerides. This may probably be explained partly by simultaneous significant reductions of both the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle tissue lipoprotein lipase activities (LPLA). In contrast, in the male patients who had a higher VLDL level at admission, the VLDL triglycerides decreased without significant changes of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and of LPLA in muscle. The female patients, whose weights were stable during the vegetarian diet, ended up with a lower HDL cholesterol than at the start of the trial. This effect was probably partly due to the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetarian diet. It is concluded that the changes of lipoprotein metabolism during supplemented fasting are quantitatively and qualitatively different in several respects in females and males.
Margetts, B. M., et al. (1985). "A randomized control trial of a vegetarian diet in the treatment of mild hypertension." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 12(3): 263-266.
The effect of an ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV) diet on blood pressure was assessed in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial in 58 mild untreated hypertensive subjects recruited from the Perth Centre for the 1983 NHF Risk Factor Prevalence Survey. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups; the first maintained their usual diet throughout 12 weeks; the other two were given an OLV diet for either the first or second 6 weeks of the 12-week trial. Introduction of an OLV diet was associated with a significant fall in systolic blood pressure, on average of the order of 5 mmHg, which was unrelated to change in urinary sodium, potassium or body weight. It was concluded that a vegetarian diet may have an adjunctive role in control of mild hypertension, but that in view of likely problems with acceptability those dietary components responsible for the blood pressure differences need to be identified.
Margetts, B. M., et al. (1985). "Vegetarian diet in the treatment of mild hypertension: a randomized controlled trial." J Hypertens Suppl 3(3): S429-431.
The effect on blood pressure of an ovo-lacto-vegetarian (OLV) diet was assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Fifty-eight mild untreated hypertensive subjects recruited from the Perth Centre for the 1983 National Heart Foundation (NHF) Risk Factor Prevalence Survey were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the first maintained their usual diet throughout 12 weeks; the other two were given an OLV diet for either the first or second 6 weeks of the 12-week trial. A significant fall in systolic blood pressure, on average of the order of 5 mmHg, was associated with eating an OLV diet. Blood pressure change was unrelated to change in urinary sodium, potassium or body weight, but was related to initial blood pressures. Although an OLV diet may have an adjunctive role in control of mild hypertension, in view of likely problems with acceptability the dietary components responsible for the blood pressure changes need to be identified.
McNeill, D. A., et al. (1985). "Mineral analyses of vegetarian, health, and conventional foods: magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese content." J Am Diet Assoc 85(5): 569-572.
The amounts of magnesium, zinc, copper, and manganese in 22 health and vegetarian foods and their conventional counterparts were measured. Increased levels of magnesium were associated with the presence of soy in vegetarian and health products. Zinc was low in the vegetarian meat and egg substitutes and in soy milk. Copper tended to be decreased in the vegetarian foods but increased in the health foods relative to levels in the conventional counterparts. Manganese levels were increased in most of the health and vegetarian food items relative to levels in the conventional foods.
Snowdon, D. A. and R. L. Phillips (1985). "Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes?" Am J Public Health 75(5): 507-512.
We propose the hypothesis that a vegetarian diet reduces the risk of developing diabetes. Findings that have generated this hypothesis are from a population of 25,698 adult White Seventh-day Adventists identified in 1960. During 21 years of follow-up, the risk of diabetes as an underlying cause of death in Adventists was approximately one-half the risk for all US Whites. Within the male Adventist population, vegetarians had a substantially lower risk than non-vegetarians of diabetes as an underlying or contributing cause of death. Within both the male and female Adventist populations, the prevalence of self-reported diabetes also was lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. The associations observed between diabetes and meat consumption were apparently not due to confounding by over- or under-weight, other selected dietary factors, or physical activity. All of the associations between meat consumption and diabetes were stronger in males than in females.
Stenhammar, L. (1985). "Coeliac disease presenting as vitamin D deficiency rickets in a vegetarian child." Acta Paediatr Scand 74(6): 972-973.
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