Akesson, B., et al. (1981). "Content of trans-octadecenoic acid in vegetarian and normal diets in Sweden, analyzed by the duplicate portion technique." Am J Clin Nutr 34(11): 2517-2520.
The intake of trans fatty acids by subjects adhering to the normal Swedish diet or to different vegetarian regimes was studied, using chemical analysis of duplicate portions. Trans-octadecenoic acid was 5.0, 3.9, and 1.8% of dietary fatty acid in the normal, lactovegetarian, and vegan diets, respectively, corresponding to 2.0, 1.3, and 0.5% of energy intake. The results are related to the content of trans-octadecenoic acid in some edible fats.
Anderson, B. M., et al. (1981). "The iron and zinc status of long-term vegetarian women." Am J Clin Nutr 34(6): 1042-1048.
Iron and zinc status of 56 Seventh-Day Adventist Canadian women (mean age 52.9 +/- 15.3 yr) following vegetarian diets for 19 +/- 17 yr were investigated. Energy, protein, iron, available iron, zinc, and total dietary fiber intakes were calculated from 3-day dietary records. Hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum and hair zinc concentrations were also determined. Plant products provided 92 and 77% of the total dietary iron and zinc intakes, respectively. Calculated mean daily intakes (+/- SD) for energy, protein, iron, zinc, and total dietary fiber were 1630 +/- 354 kcal, 58 +/- 14 g, 12.5 +/- 3.0 mg, 9.2 +/- 2.5 mg, and 30.9 +/- 11.0 g, respectively. Mean hemoglobin (13.1 +/- 1.0 g/dl), calculated serum transferrin saturation (37.5 +/- 12.9%), mean serum zinc (99 +/- 24 microgram/dl), and hair zinc concentrations (187 +/- 44 ppm) were all within the normal range. The iron and zinc status of these long-term Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarian women appeared adequate despite their low intake of readily absorbed iron and zinc from flesh foods and their high intake of total dietary fiber and phytate.
Armstrong, B. K., et al. (1981). "Diet and reproductive hormones: a study of vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women." J Natl Cancer Inst 67(4): 761-767.
In comparison with matched nonvegetarian women, postmenopausal vegetarian women were found to have lower urinary levels of estriol and total estrogens, lower plasma prolactin levels, and higher plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. These differences were not explained by differences in body weight or obesity. Plasma SHBG levels were highly correlated with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which were also higher in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians. These hormonal differences may explain the lower rates of endometrial and possibly breast cancer that have been observed previously in vegetarian women.
Arvidsson, J. and A. Mark (1981). "[Deficiency symptoms in children kept on a strict vegetarian diet]." Lakartidningen 78(34): 2832-2832.
Beaulieu, A. (1981). "[Nutritional consequences of a vegetarian diet]." Union Med Can 110(5): 409-412.
Bhatia, B. D., et al. (1981). "Dietary intakes of urban and rural pregnant, lactating and non-pregnant, non-lactating vegetarian women of Varanasi." Indian J Med Res 74: 680-687.
Christoffel, K. (1981). "A pediatric perspective on vegetarian nutrition." Clin Pediatr (Phila) 20(10): 632-643.
Fernandes, J., et al. (1981). "The effect of a virtually cholesterol-free, high-linoleic-acid vegetarian diet on serum lipoproteins of children with familial hypercholesterolemia (type II-A)." Acta Paediatr Scand 70(5): 677-682.
The effect of a virtually cholesterol-free, high-linoleic-acid vegetarian diet and a high-linoleic-acid "normal" diet with a moderate cholesterol content was tested in 39 children heterozygote for hypercholesterolemia type II-A. The diets were administered in an outpatient cross-over design of two periods of 10 weeks each and the serum lipoproteins were analyzed at the end of the two 10-week periods. The vegetarian diet induced a decrease in serum concentrations of LDL-II total and free cholesterol and of apo-B, by an average of 10%, whereas HDL cholesterol and apo-A-I decreased by 4%. The disproportionately large change in LDL compared to the small change in HDL was interpreted as an antiatherogenic effect of the vegetarian diet.
Immerman, A. M. (1981). "Vitamin B12 status on a vegetarian diet. A clinical review." World Rev Nutr Diet 37: 38-54.
Lacroix, J., et al. (1981). "[Complication of a vegetarian diet in a breast-fed girl (author's transl)]." Arch Fr Pediatr 38(4): 233-238.
A case is presented of megaloblastic anemia with metabolic acidosis. The baby was eleven months old. She was strictly fed with human milk from a vegetarian mother. Baby's and mother's B 12 serum levels were low. Baby's weight and neurological development were retarded. Complications included acido-cetosis, coagulation disorder and liver disorder. All these problems were corrected by cobalamine supplementation. X-rays also disclosed bone demineralization.
Masdeu, S., et al. (1981). "[High density lipoprotein cholesterol. Normal values, influence of vascular risk factors and of a vegetarian diet (author's transl)]." Med Clin (Barc) 76(6): 246-250.
The serum levels of cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) were determined by the heparin-manganese chloride precipitation method in 306 subjects, 182 male with ages ranging from 11 to 81 years, and 124 female with ages ranging from 7 to 78 years. Twenty six subjects belonged to a lacto-vegetarian community, while the remaining 280 were healthy volunteers, factory workmen sampled during a regular check-up, and either outpatients or inpatients being evaluated for minor illnesses or minor surgery. None of the subjects had arteriosclerosis or a metabolic disease and, with the exception of the lacto-vegetarians, they were all consuming a normal diet. HDL-C concentrations varied very little among the different age groups. Females had HDL-C values slightly superior to those of males. No significant differences were found between smokers and non-smokers, alcohol drinkers and non-drinkers, and regularly exercising and sedentary people. HDL-C concentrations were independent of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Females under oral contraceptive treatment had lower HDL-C levels than control females, but the differences were not statistically significant. Compared with age and sex-matched controls, the lactovegetarians showed similar HDL-C concentrations.
Matthews, W. B. and R. G. Will (1981). "Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a lifelong vegetarian." Lancet 2(8252): 937.
Murphy, M. F. (1981). "Vitamin B12 deficiency due to a low-cholesterol diet in a vegetarian." Ann Intern Med 94(1): 57-58.
Sanders, T. A. (1981). "Vegetarian diets." Nurs Times 77(11): 446-447.
Tiegen, V. E., et al. (1981). "A model for evaluating cariogenicity applied to vegetarian diets." ASDC J Dent Child 48(4): 278-284.
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